Mission 2.11
Modal verbs
Modal verbs are the familiar CAN, MUST, WILL and others (see a complete list below).

They are attached to meaningful verbs in order to express the speaker's attitude to what is said.

The attitude can be expressed as ability; obligation; possibility; probability; willingness; permission; prohibition.
· I CAN swim. - I AM ABLE TO swim.
· I MUST go. - I AM AOBLIGED TO go.
Как вы догадались, означают они разные вещи. К концу миссии вы сможете понять разницу самостоятельно.
1.
USAGE

Modals are easy to use. They have 3 distinctive features:
1) They are self-sufficient and do not require auxiliaries in questions and negative sentences.
· Can you swim? Do you can swim?
· May I come in?
· You shall not pass!
· I wouldn't let.


2) They do not require TO (except have to, ought to and need to):
· They will to fight.
· You should to leave.

Keep that in mind. Many students tend to say " must to / should to", which is a mistake.

3) In the the present simple they don't require -S in the third person singular.
· She can speak English.
· He must apologise.

· to drink - это инфинитив (т.е. начальная форма глагола). TO SING, TO DRINK, TO FIGHT.
· drinkING - т.н. герундий (gerund), а проще говоря - глагол в упаковке из-под существительного.
Let's have a look at the entire list of modals.
NB
*Чтобы раз и навсегда закрыть этот вопрос - обозначим это здесь:

DRINKING как герундий - это отглагольное существительное, буквально означающее "ПИТЬЁ".

DRINKING в Continuous (e.g. I am drinking) - это причастие, буквально означающее "ПЬЮЩИЙ".
Они идентичны с виду, но являются РАЗНЫМИ частями речи и даже имеют разные корни.
Не путайте их.
LIST AND FORMS
2.
CAN
WILL
SHALL
MAY
MUST

1st form
2nd form
COULD
WOULD
SHOULD
MIGHT
-


As you can see, nearly every modal verb has a corresponding second form (the past tense).
Like in Russian, this past tense expresses politness (хочу-хотел бы) or the subjunctive mood (могу-мог бы). For details, read on.
Besides, there are a few verbs that are modal in terms of MEANING, but not necessarily in terms of grammar.

HAVE TO, NEED TO, HAD BETTER, OUGHT TO, DARE (TO).

They also express attitude but may not have the superpowers described above - and they may require applying the set of actions like auxiliaries and so on:
· Do we have to work?
· You don't need to worry.
· Don't you dare!
WHAT THEY DIDNT TELL YOU AT SCHOOL

Then what is the difference between WILL and SHALL?
3.
1. Let's start with WILL.
It basically means "want" and is often used to express the future tense.

· I WILL call him = I wish to call him.

In short, WILL is related to 'willing'.

(There's no such thing as a 'pure' future tense in English).
2. SHALL is not an obsolete form and does not necessarily refer to I or we (as you may have been told).

SHALL expresses a strong assertion, obligation or suggestion.
Look at these phrases with shall:

· You shall not pass!
· Shall I open the window?

In short, SHALL expresses future actions dependent on someone else's will.
3. Let's look at WILL and SHALL together:

· He will arrive on Tuesday. (willingly)
· He shall arrive on Tuesday. (under obligation, there's no getting out of it).

This is why SHALL is used in formal documents like contracts:

· The Buyer shall buy and the Seller shall sell the following Goods...
WILL and SHALL directly correspond to WOULD and SHOULD, the difference between which is even more obvious.
NB!
WHAT THEY MAY HAVE NOT TOLD YOU AT SCHOOL
4.
In a similar way, the modal MUST is different from the semi-modal HAVE TO.
'Willingly' and 'under obligation':

· I must go - the speaker's motivation
· I have to go - external motivation

In negative sentences, don't confuse MUST NOT and DON'T HAVE TO:

· You don't have to work - NOT NECESSARY
· You must not work! It's Shabbat today. - PROHIBITED

NB!
УЧЕНИЯ
Before embarking on the task, you may want to familiarise yourself with this file:
Do it.
УЧЕНИЯ