Mission 2.13
Reported speech
Speech can be direct:

· 'I like shopping', she said.

Or it can be reported. It's when we report someone else's words.
Simply put, get rid of the quotation marks:

· She said that she liked shopping.

· 'I can't come', he said. – direct speech
· He said he couldn't come. – reported speech



· I normally GO to the station to beg for money but I'M NOT GOING there today because it's my wedding day.
· Я обычно ХОЖУ на вокзал попрошайничать, но НЕ ИДУ туда сегодня, потому что у меня свадьба.

· He FLIES to Cyprus every Saturday but he ISN'T FLYING anywhere this week as they put a freeze on his bank account.
· Он ЛЕТАЕТ на Кипр каждую субботу, но на этой неделе он никуда НЕ ЛЕТИТ, так как его счет заморозили.

· We often RUN marathons but we AREN'T RUNNING today because we got our sneakers stolen.
· Мы часто БЕГАЕМ марафоны, но сегодня мы НЕ БЕЖИМ, потому что у нас украли кроссовки.
1.
1. As you can see, when we retell someone else's words (he said that...), we put them in the past tense.

· 'I like ice cream', she said.
· She said (that) she liked ice cream.

· 'I am living in London', she said.
· She said (that) she was living in London.


2. What if the exact words are already in the past tense?

· 'I passed the exam!' she told him.

Exactly: put it deeper into the past - the Past Perfect:

· She told him (that) she had passed the exam.


HOW IS IT FORMED?
HOW DO 'LOWER' THE TENSES?

So, we need a system. Let's make it look like a staircase:
2.
1. As you can see, any Present (be it Simple, Continuous или Perfect) becomes the corresponding Past Simple, Past Continuous or Past Perfect.

· I always drink coffee. – She said that she always drank coffee. (Present Simple -> Past Simple)
· I am reading a book. He explained that he was reading a book. (Present Cont -> Past Cont)
· I have been to Spain. He told me that he had been to Spain. (Present Perfect -> Past Perfect)
· I will be in Geneva on Monday. – He said that he would be in Geneva on Monday. (Will -> would(2) )

2. Any Past turns into the Past Perfect.
· Bill arrived on Saturday. He said that Bill had arrived on Saturday. (Past Simple -> Past Perfect)
· I had turned out the light. He explained that he had turned out the light. (Past Perfect -> Past Perfect)

3. WILL uses its past form too – (WOULD):

· I will always love you.
· She said she would always love me.
The same holds true with the other modals:

· I may be late.
· He said he might be late.

· I must go.
· She told me she had to go.
NB!
Не путайте слова SAY и TELL.
После SAY нельзя ставить личные местоимения; после TELL - можно и нужно.

· He said that he was tired; He said me...
· He told me he was tired; he told that he was...
NB!
Не путайте слова SAY и TELL.
После SAY нельзя ставить личные местоимения; после TELL - можно и нужно.

· He said that he was tired; He said me...
· He told me he was tired; he told that he was...
NB!
Не путайте слова SAY и TELL.
После SAY нельзя ставить личные местоимения; после TELL - можно и нужно.

· He said that he was tired; He said me...
· He told me he was tired; he told that he was...
NB!
Не путайте слова SAY и TELL.
После SAY нельзя ставить личные местоимения; после TELL - можно и нужно.

· He said that he was tired; He said me...
· He told me he was tired; he told that he was...
NB!
Don't confuse SAY and TELL.
After SAY you can't use an object; after TELL, you can and should.

· He said that he was tired; He said me...
· He told me he was tired; he told that he was...
ORDERS / REQUESTS
3.
What if you need to report a request or order? (Imperative)
· Go away!
Just like in Russian – use an infinitive:

· She told him to go away.

· Don't worry!
· The doctor told me not to worry.
4.
And what if it's a question?

· What's your name?

1. Remember a simple rule: to report a question, use the affirmative word order, i.e. subject + verb.

· I asked him what his name was.

· Where do you live?
· They asked me where I lived.


2. What if it's a yes/no question (without words like when, why, where, etc.)

· Are you married?

Then, use IF or WHETHER in place of the question word:

· Are you married?
· She asked him if he was married.

· Did she call?
· He asked me whether she had called.

QUESTIONS
Extra task:

Make yourself wonder why that happens?

Why do we not use the question word order in reported speech?

УЧЕНИЯ
'What's your name?' 'David.'
'Are you married?' 'No, I'm not.'
'How old are you?' '25.'
'Are you a student?' 'Yes, I am.'
'Am I late?' 'No, you're on time.'
'Is your mother at home?' 'No, she's out.'
'Are your parents at home?' 'No, they're out.'
'Is it cold in your room?' 'Yes, a little.'
Your shoes are nice. Are they new?
Is she at home? / Is your mother at home?
Are they new? / Are your shoes new?
Get acquainted with the task and check yourself:
FIELD PRACTICE