HOW DO 'LOWER' THE TENSES?
So, we need a system. Let's make it look like a staircase:
1. As you can see, any Present (be it Simple, Continuous или Perfect) becomes the corresponding Past Simple, Past Continuous or Past Perfect.
· I always drink coffee. – She said that she always drank coffee. (Present Simple -> Past Simple)
· I am reading a book. – He explained that he was reading a book. (Present Cont -> Past Cont)
· I have been to Spain. – He told me that he had been to Spain. (Present Perfect -> Past Perfect)
· I will be in Geneva on Monday. – He said that he would be in Geneva on Monday. (Will -> would(2) )
2. Any Past turns into the Past Perfect.
· Bill arrived on Saturday. – He said that Bill had arrived on Saturday. (Past Simple -> Past Perfect)
· I had turned out the light. – He explained that he had turned out the light. (Past Perfect -> Past Perfect)
3. WILL uses its past form too – (WOULD):
will always love you.
· She said she
would always love me.
The same holds true with the other modals:
may be late.
· He said he
might be late.
· She told me she
had to go.