Mission 2.12
Modals and probability
In the previous mission, we learned that modals (MAY, MUST, WILL, MIGHT etc) can express:

- ability, obligation; possibility; probability; willingness; permission; prohibition.
Today, we are focusing on probability.

· He MUST be drunk. = I'm pretty sure he's drunk.
· She MAY/MIGHT/COULD be his sister. = It's possible that she is his sister.
· You CAN'T be a policeman. = I'm pretty sure, you are not a policeman.
Как вы догадались, означают они разные вещи. К концу миссии вы сможете понять разницу самостоятельно.
NB!
As you can see, the degree of certainty can be expressed with a mere modal verb.
1.
The degree of certainty can be expressed not only with regard to the present, but also to the past.

For that (just like in Type 3 Conditionals) we'll add the element of completion - the good old perfect.
HAVE + V3:



· I must have passed the exam.

· Somebody may/might/could have stolen your wallet while you were sleeping.

· They can't/couldn't have seen us. It was too dark.

· It must have been love (but it's over now).


· to drink - это инфинитив (т.е. начальная форма глагола). TO SING, TO DRINK, TO FIGHT.
· drinkING - т.н. герундий (gerund), а проще говоря - глагол в упаковке из-под существительного.
NB
*Чтобы раз и навсегда закрыть этот вопрос - обозначим это здесь:

DRINKING как герундий - это отглагольное существительное, буквально означающее "ПИТЬЁ".

DRINKING в Continuous (e.g. I am drinking) - это причастие, буквально означающее "ПЬЮЩИЙ".
Они идентичны с виду, но являются РАЗНЫМИ частями речи и даже имеют разные корни.
Не путайте их.
The relationships between tenses and infinitives are displayed in the table.

Note that the meaning of the the Past Simple is expressed with a perfect infinitive, and the Past Continuous changes for a perfect continuous infinitive.

Study these examples.

2.

to watch

Present Simple

He might watch a lot of films.

Future Simple

He might watch it tomorrow.

to be watching

Present Continuous

He might be watching it now.

Future Continuous

He might be watching it when you come.

to have watched

Past Simple

He might have watched it last year.

Present Perfect

He might have watched it already.

Past Perfect

He might have watched it before you did.

Future Perfect

He might have watched it by the time it comes out officially.

to have been watching

Past Continuous

He might have been watching it when you came.

Present Perfect Continuous

He might have been watching it for hours now.

Past Perfect Continuous

He might have been watching it for hours when you came.

Future Perfect Continuous

He might have been watching it for hours when you come.

3.
COMBAT MISSION
4.
All the examples given in section 1 are grouped from the least probable to the most probable.

Your task:

1. Draw up two tables with those modals: for the present and for the past respectively.

2. Both tables have to have 3 rows, each containing a modal verb that expresses probability (MUST; MAY/MIGHT; CAN'T, etc)

3. Next to each verb, indicate the PERCENTAGE of probability that it expresses.
(e.g., MUST - 88.1%; MAY - 14.6%) etc.

Show these percentages as a scale.
To sup up: 2 tables, 3 cells in each; next to the cells - a percentage scale of probability.

Perhaps, for a deeper understanding you'll need to do the FIELD PRACTICE:
УЧЕНИЯ
Go for it.
Get acquainted with the document below, and your chances of success will increase substantially:
FIELD PRACTICE