Mission 2.8
The Passive Voice
As you remember, every English verb has three major forms:


It's the Past Participle (V3) that we are going to need today.

V – Infinitive

V2 – Past

V3 Past Participle

work

worked

worked

like

liked

liked

play

played

played

go

went

gone

come

came

come

speak

spoke

spoken

(Зум по клику)
1.
HOW ARE PASSIVES FORMED?

BE + V3

The verb TO BE + the Past Participle (V3). Just like that: 'to be done'.
WHAT DOES IT MEAN?

It means that a certain action is performed on someone or something.
2.
Cheese is made from milk. – They make cheese from milk.

Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. – Shakespeare wrote Hamlet.

HOW DO YOU USE IT IN DIFFERENT TENSES?


Just put TO BE into the corresponding verb form. The past participle (V3) does NOT change.
3.
NB!
The passive voice is also quite common in continuous forms.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS:
The plan is being discussed. = Someone is discussing the plan.

PAST CONTINUOUS:
The plan was being discussed. = Someone was discussing the plan.
PRESENT:

I am invited. (= Someone invites me.)

She is invited. (= Someone invites her.)

We are invited. (= Someone invites us.)


PAST:

He was invited. (= Someone invited him.)

They were invited. (= Someone invited them.)


PRESENT PERFECT:

He has been invited. (= Someone has invited him.)

They have been invited. (= Someone has invited them.)


FUTURE:

You will be invited. (= Someone will invite you.)

He is going to be invited. (= Someone is going to invite him.)
HOW DO YOU TRANSLATE IT INTO RUSSIAN?
4.
It was said. – Это было сказано.

The house will be built. – Дом будет построен.
• by means of –СЯ:
Toyota cars are made in Japan. – Машины «Тойота» делаются в Японии.

Ministers were appointed by the President. – Министры назначались президентом.
• with impersonal sentences (see examples)
His car was bought yesterday. – Его машину купили вчера.

She was given a prize. – Ей дали приз.

We were tricked. – Нас обманули.

literally:
УЧЕНИЯ
'What's your name?' 'David.'
'Are you married?' 'No, I'm not.'
'How old are you?' '25.'
'Are you a student?' 'Yes, I am.'
'Am I late?' 'No, you're on time.'
'Is your mother at home?' 'No, she's out.'
'Are your parents at home?' 'No, they're out.'
'Is it cold in your room?' 'Yes, a little.'
Your shoes are nice. Are they new?
Is she at home? / Is your mother at home?
Are they new? / Are your shoes new?
Just another bit.
Here's the secret pdf package:
FIELD PRACTICE
The same, as a self-check form: