Mission 2.3
Present Perfect
Present Perfect
...What does 'perfect' mean?
It's the idea of completion in English.

1.
It's one thing if you did something in the past. As a rule, the indication of a specific timing immediately breaks the link with the present and puts the action into the Past Simple:



· Ahmed moved to London 2 years ago.



Sometimes, the timing may not be indicated but is still implied in context.


2. It's a different thing if you want to emphasise that the action had been completed by a certain moment. For example, by a moment in the past - i.e. before the Past Simple:



· When Ahmed arrived at the station, the train HAD already LEFT.



It's called the Past Perfect. The key point is the correlation between the actions.


3. Similarly, we express the completion at the present moment.
Let's 'shift' the above diagram to the right:



·
Ahmed has moved to London.
(finally!)


It is this completion that we are discussing today. The Present Perfect!

1.
How do we form it? Elementary:
have + V3
Why do we need these elements?
1) HAVE – auxiliary verb that still retains some of its literal meaning ('possess'):

· I have a book.
· She has a son.

2) V3 - is the past participle, the 'third' form. To get it, add –ed to a regular verb.
If the verb is irregular, look it up in the table and commit it to memory. You're working on it already, aren't you?

The third form (V3) is the past passive participle.
Like, made in China.

· a finished book (someone finished it)
· a planned check-up (someone planned it)
· a written notice (someone wrote it)
· a sent letter (someone sent it)






Why do we need a past participle in perfect forms?

To better indicate the completion of the action.

· I have written this down. – I have this. This is written down.
· I haven't done my homework. - I don't have my homework. My homework isn't done.
· He has finished the book. – He has the book. The book is finished.
· They have planned a party. – They have a party. A party is planned.
· I have written five letters. – I have five letters. Five letters are written.
· She has sent an application. – She has an application. An application is sent.

BY THE WAY
КАК РАБОТАЕТ В ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИИ?

В Present Perfect HAVE – глагол вспомогательный. Вспомните HAVE GOT.

Он сокращается:



Он выносится вперед в вопросах и объединяется с NOT в отрицаниях:



2.
NB!

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· They have seen it before. → They've seen it before.
· He has written five books. → He's written five books.


· They have been there. → Have they been there? → They have not (haven't) been there.
· He has written 5 books. → Has he written 5 books? → He has not (hasn't) written 5 books.


· They have seen it before. → They've seen it before.
· He has written five books. → He's written five books.
· They have been there. → Have they been there? → They have not (haven't) been there.
· He has written 5 books. → Has he written 5 books? → He has not (hasn't) written 5 books.
Несмотря на примеры "русского перфекта" выше - обычно через прошедшее время.

· He has left. – Он ушел. (дословно - «У него уйдено»).
· She has arrived. – Она прибыла. («У нее прибыто»).
· I have said that before. – Я говорил это раньше. («У меня говорено это раньше»).
3.
Как переводится на русский язык?

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4.
КОГДА ИСПОЛЬЗУЕТСЯ?
Все определения, которые обычно втирают про Present Perfect – "результат", "итог", "опыт" - всего лишь разные названия одной и той же вещи. Взглянем на неё ещё раз:
Верно. Совершённость к настоящему моменту!
Она может проявляться, например:
1) Для сообщения новостей, без указания на конкретное время, часто со словами already (уже), just (только что), yet (еще).
Эти слова могут быть в предложении или просто подразумеваться.

· I have (just) cut my finger. – Я (только что) порезал палец.
· She has (already) made 20 phone calls. – Она (уже) сделала 20 телефонных звонков.
· We haven't talked (yet). – Мы (еще) не разговаривали.


2) Чтобы спросить или сообщить о том, что вам доводилось делать, часто со словами before (раньше), never (никогда), ever (когда-нибудь).

· I've tried sushi before. – Я пробовал суши раньше. (т.е. мне доводилось пробовать)
· They have never been there. – Они никогда не бывали там. (т.е. им не доводилось бывать)
· Have you ever seen a fox? – Ты когда-нибудь видел лису? (т.е. доводилось ли тебе видеть)

Итого, у нас есть 6 слов-маркеров, которые так или иначе "отсылают" к совершённости: already, yet, just, ever, never, before.

Они почти всегда заставляют соотносить два действия на шкале времени.
Это и есть наш случай - перфект.
Кстати, на Memrise мы сделали отдельный курс по неправильным глаголам.
Настоятельно рекомендуется к прохождению.
memrise.com/course/1553059

А еще вы сможете скачать неправильные глаголы в формате PDF, если кликнете на корону.
Over to you
Now test yourself.
Present Perfect
Start quiz
Which of the following is Present Perfect? There may be several answers.
That's right.
Spot-on!
Exactly!
Yep!
Next
Check
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They __________ .
Exactly so.
You must be kidding. 'Came' is Past Simple.
No, but we won't tell anyone.
Not quite. Word order.
Next
Check
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She __________ a lot of people.
add -S, please
Well done!
's = has
You need to use a different form.
Next
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Where ____________________?
Wrong. Past Participle, please.
It's not Present Perfect but it's correct.
How does it feel to get it right?
Absolutely! You deserve a prize but we don't have one yet.
Next
Check
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____ your father been to Peru?
Does 'third person singular' mean anything to you?
Of course not.
Not really, no.
Oh yes, he has!
Next
Check
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They __________ a letter.
There's no '-ing' in Present Perfect.
Correct!
No, 'wrote' is Past Simple.
You need a double 't'.
Next
Check
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Has he ever _________ in the shower?
Wrong, sorry.
Come on, it's Present Perfect. Past Participle, please.
There's no such form. Irregular.
Yes.
Next
Check
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We have ______ finished work.
Correct.
True.
No, 'yet' goes at the end.
Makes no sense.
Next
Check
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What _______________ yesterday?
Yes, sir! Yes, madam!
No Present Perfect with 'yesterday'.
No.
The form is correct but come on, it was yesterday.
Next
Check
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When ____________ him for the first time?
No need to complicate things.
No need for Present Perfect here.
You need the past tense.
Congratulations!
Next
Check
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Ouch! I _________ my finger.
Quite right.
It's still relevant.
Sure.
You can't use 'has' with 'I'.
Next
Check
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Which one(s) is/are Present Perfect?
No, this is called 'Causative'. We'll talk about it later.
Fantastic!
'has yet to cut' is not Present Perfect
No, 'has got' means the same as 'has'.
Next
Check
Show result
Are you sure you've read the text above?
Do it over ASAP.
Restart
Not so bad.
But not so good either.
Restart
We are proud of you.
But there's still room for improvement.
Restart
Excellent!
Keep it up, soldier!
Restart
УЧЕНИЯ
'What's your name?' 'David.'
'Are you married?' 'No, I'm not.'
'How old are you?' '25.'
'Are you a student?' 'Yes, I am.'
'Am I late?' 'No, you're on time.'
'Is your mother at home?' 'No, she's out.'
'Are your parents at home?' 'No, they're out.'
'Is it cold in your room?' 'Yes, a little.'
Your shoes are nice. Are they new?
Is she at home? / Is your mother at home?
Are they new? / Are your shoes new?
Осталось немного.
Вот пакет с учениями (в pdf):
Он же, в формате самопроверки:
УЧЕНИЯ