Mission 2.10
Gerunds and Infinitives
Compare these two sentences:
· I stopped to drink.
· I stopped drinking.
As you understand, they mean different things. By the end of the mission, you'll be able to figure out the difference on your own.

Now, let's take these two sentences and talk about those 'meaningful' verb forms - to drink and drinking.
· I stopped to drink.
· I stopped drinking.
As you see, they're 'wrapped' into different forms.
· to drink is an infinitive (i.e. the base form). TO SING, TO DRINK, TO FIGHT.
· drinkING is the so-called gerund, or, simply put, a verb wrapped as a noun.
We are just about to figure out when to use either form.
It's pretty handy when constructing sentences.
*To finalise the matter, let's point out the difference:

DRINKING as a gerund is a verb-like noun literally meaning 'the PROCESS of drinking'.

DRINKING in Continuous forms (e.g. I am drinking) is a participle, an adjective-like form literally meaning 'IN the process of drinking'.
The look the same but are different parts of speech and even have different origins.
Don't mix them up.

· drinkING - т.н. герундий (gerund), а проще говоря - глагол в упаковке из-под существительного.
· to drink - это инфинитив (т.е.
начальная форма глагола). TO SING, TO DRINK, TO FIGHT.

The gerund is used when we find it more convenient to use a verb in the role of a noun.
1. For example, as the subject:

· Smoking is dangerous.
· Remembering names is so hard.
2. Or after a preposition:

· Can someone live in the UK without knowing English?
· I thought of buying another fur coat.
3. And after certain verbs:

admit, avoid, deny, dislike, enjoy, feel like, finish, hate, keep, like, love, mind, miss, practise, prefer, recommend, spend time, stop, suggest, etc...

Plus after most phrasal verbs like give up, go on, etc.
(Why? Because phrasal verbs also contain prepositions).

· I suggested taking the train instead of walking.
· Katie's given up smoking.

On the whole, the infinitive expresses a PURPOSE or INTENTION.
Why? Because TO that accompanies the infinitive means 'IN ORDER TO'.
1. Purpose, intention:

· I saved money to buy a new car.
· I spend 3 hours to get to work every day.
· Be careful not to ask her about her boyfriend.

2. For this reason, it can be used after adjectives too:

· My house is easy to find.
· So nice to hear from you!

3. And, naturally, after certain verbs:

agree, decide, expect, forget, help, hope, learn, need, offer, plan, pretend, promise, refuse, remember... etc.

· I learnt to swim when I was 7.
· Sarah refused to go out with John, but agreed to accept an iPhone as a present.

In some complex sentences, there can be a finite form, an infinitive, and a gerund:

· In 2015, the Queen decided to stop breeding corgis.

That is why you can sometimes use either form after the same verb.
The meaning will be different:

· Don't forget to lock the door! - purpose
· I will never forget seeing Vorkuta for the first time. - fact

· Remember to buy milk! - purpose
· I remember going to Peru as a child. - fact

(as you can see from these examples, it's often that the gerund looks at the past, whereas the infinitive aims at the future.).

· I really tried to open the window! (purpose)
· Try doing yoga, that will help your spine. (one of the things you could do).

To sum up:
1. A gerund is a verbal noun, i.e. the fact of completing an action or the process of it.
2. An infinitive is a purpose, destination or intention.
Among other things, infinitives and gerunds have passive and even perfect forms:

· Being drunk can be an excuse for doing lots of things. (passive gerund).
· It's hard to learn German without having learned English. (perfect gerund).

· How does it feel to be hit by a car? (passive infinitive).
· How wonderful to have survived in two World Wars! (perfect infinitive).
Let's now go back to the beginning of the mission.
Translate these two sentences or explain the difference between them:

· I stopped to drink.
· I stopped drinking.
'What's your name?' 'David.'
'Are you married?' 'No, I'm not.'
'How old are you?' '25.'
'Are you a student?' 'Yes, I am.'
'Am I late?' 'No, you're on time.'
'Is your mother at home?' 'No, she's out.'
'Are your parents at home?' 'No, they're out.'
'Is it cold in your room?' 'Yes, a little.'
Your shoes are nice. Are they new?
Is she at home? / Is your mother at home?
Are they new? / Are your shoes new?
Here's a package to put you in the picture: